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class d amplifier

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A Class D integrated-circuit amplifier may be able to use a smaller and cheaper package than is possible for the linear one. The PCB layout and bill-of-materials for each of these boards serve as a workable reference design, helping customers quickly design working, cost-effective audio systems without having to “reinvent the wheel” to solve the major Class D amplifier design challenges. Class D amplifier is a switching amplifier and when it is in the “ON” state it will conduct current but have almost zero voltage across the switches, therefore no heat is dissipated due to power consumption. The image of the conduction angle derives from amplifying a sinusoidal signal. It is somewhat costly, but promises accurate sound over a long lifespan. Without the filter, EMI and high-frequency power dissipation can increase unacceptably—unless the speaker is inductive and kept very close to the amplifier, current-loop areas are minimal, and power levels are kept low. The time intervals in which both transistors are off are called nonoverlap time or dead time. Class D amplifiers take on many different forms, some can have digital inputs and some can have analog inputs. This waveform is benign for power dissipation, because the output transistors have zero current when not switching, and have low VDS when they are conducting current, thus giving smaller IDS × VDS. The gate-drive circuitry that switches the capacitance consumes power—CV2f, where C is the capacitance, V is the voltage change during charging, and f is the switching frequency. For power levels below 1 W, wasted power can be more of a difficulty than heat generation. Class-D smart amplifiers provide advanced modeling and algorithms to produce more robust sound without damaging your speaker from heat and over exertion. Nielsen, K., “A Review and Comparison of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) Methods for Analog and Digital Input Switching Power Amplifiers,” Presented at the 102nd AES Convention, Munich, Germany, March 1997. The Sonos Amp is another premium choice, and despite its minimalist construction, boasts a range of features geared toward home theater. The full-bridge circuit (Figure 3) can use “3-state” modulation to reduce differential EMI. Hypex Electronics The truth is that if you have a little bit of electronics engineering know-how, you can put together an efficient, powerful, cost-effective amplifier all by yourself without much difficulty. The Wiki is a participant in associate programs The Global 5 and 10 Largest Players: Market Share by Audio Class D Amplifier Revenue in 2020 Figure 27. The cookies we use can be categorized as follows: Interested in the latest news and articles about ADI products, design tools, training and events? More technical information about Class D amplifiers—including implementations with Blackfin processors—can be found in the Further Reading section. Under this condition, 282 mW is dissipated inside the Class D output stage, vs. 2.53 W for Class B and 30.2 W for Class A. Since most audio signals are not pulse trains, a modulator must be included to convert the audio input into pulses. Also, at least 64× oversampling is needed to achieve sufficient audio-band SNR, so typical output data rates are at least 1 MHz and power efficiency is limited. These differences have important consequences for system design. The real trade-offs occur when considering other components of the system. The lower power dissipation provides a strong motivation to use Class D for audio applications, but there are important challenges for the designer. All the magic happens in the output filter. Fortunately, there are good solutions to these issues. Ltd. - Offering CentIoT - NS4158 Micro USB Power Amplifier- 2 Channel 3W Stereo Mini Class D Digital Audio Amplifier, Printed Circuit Board Circuit, पीसीबी सर्किट in Bengaluru, Karnataka. The 0 state can be used to represent low power levels, instead of switching between the positive and negative state as in a 2-state scheme. If not properly understood and managed, these components can generate large amounts of EMI and disrupt operation of other equipment. He delights in parsing complex subjects for anyone who will listen -- because teaching is the best way to ensure that you understand things yourself. The reason is that many inductor cores will magnetically saturate if current exceeds the current-rating threshold and flux density becomes too high—resulting in unwanted drastic reduction of inductance. It is sometimes helpful to insert RF chokes in series with the power supplies for the amplifier. When driven from a digital audio source, analog linear amplifiers require D/A converters (DACs) to convert the audio into analog form. Large reverse-recovery current spikes can flow before the diode fully turns off, creating a troublesome source of EMI. These considerations are onerous in consumer products such as flat-screen TVs, where space is at a premium—or automotive audio, where the trend is toward cramming higher channel counts into a fixed space. When the nonoverlap time ends, the bias on the diode is changed from forward to reverse. Figure 1 above shows the basic block diagram for a Half Bridge Class D amplifier, with the waveforms at each stage. In the example of Figure 7, the audio input and triangular wave are both centered around 0 V, so that for 0 input, the duty ratio of the output pulses is 50%. Learn about design of amplifiers in class D. Design amplifier wiring for bass with a power output of about 100 W. Complete the output stage with an active correction preamp with with a three-band equalizer and a switchable center band correction frequency. Class D modulators can be implemented in many ways, supported by a large quantity of related research and intellectual property. Skip to the best class d amplifier on Amazon. Here's a good question: just why are power amplifiers so heavy? See Further Reading 3 for a good description of the effect of power-supply noise in single-ended and differential switching output-stage circuits. For best results in filter design, one should always seek to use an accurate speaker model. This occurs because the output-stage transistors connect the power supplies to the low-pass filter through a very low resistance. At this level, the Class D output-stage dissipation is nine times less than Class B, and 107 times less than Class A. The differences in power dissipation and efficiency widen at moderate power levels. October 16, 2020 One of the first cla… This reduces output stage power dissipation, with only signal current conducted through the transistors. There's no shortage of impressive car audio options, either, and the Power Acoustik has about as good of a price-to-performance ratio as you'll find. Undervoltage: Most switching output stage circuits work well only if the positive power supply voltages are high enough. Its output transistors are individually controlled in a push-pull manner, allowing the MH device to supply positive currents to the speaker, and ML to sink negative currents. picks, by Feedback complicates the amplifier design, however, because loop stability must be addressed (a nontrivial consideration for high-order design). The lower dissipation of Class D saves the cost (and space) of cooling apparatus like heat sinks or fans. It uses a single button to power on and off, and to switch between two available inputs. But in order to fully understand how one works, I need to teach you all its nooks and crannies.Let's start with that first sentence. In integrated-circuit amplifier implementations, this can add to the die cost. This issue is commonly handled by an undervoltage lockout circuit, which permits the output stages to operate only if the power supply voltages are above an undervoltage-lockout threshold. The filter normally uses capacitors and inductors, with the only intentionally dissipative element being the speaker. The small dc bias current is sufficient to prevent crossover distortion, enabling good sound quality. Amazingly for such a brute, the CD3000 only takes up 2U of rack space, and weighs a mere (for a power amp) 21kg. Information about the audio signal level is generally encoded in the widths of the Class D modulator output pulses. All Class D modulation techniques encode information about the audio signal into a stream of pulses. If you're looking for an all-in-one solution to your home stereo needs, it's hard to top the NAD D 3045 (about $749), which supports HDMI audio return and a range of inputs including coaxial, optical, phono, and line ports as well as high-resolution MQA and DSD decoding. Even worse, the THD tends to be the bad-sounding high-order kind. Its output stage switches between the positive and negative power supplies so as to produce a train of voltage pulses. Thus, for audio amplifiers, [PLOAD = 0.1 × PLOAD max] is a reasonable average power level at which to evaluate PDISS. The sensor can provide additional temperature information, aside from the simple binary indication about whether temperature has exceeded the shutdown threshold. About the Wiki: We don't accept sponsorships, Output-stage power efficiency, Eff, is defined as. Another approach is to minimize the number of LC filter components required per audio channel. Class D amplifiers — popular kings of efficiency. In this case, the Class D efficiency is reduced to 78%—from 90% at higher power. The width of each pulse is then modified by the input signal — the wider the pulse, the louder the signal. To save time for the designer, Analog Devices offers a variety of Class D amplifier integrated circuits, incorporating programmable-gain amplifiers, modulators, and power output stages. When users buy our independently chosen editorial Other sources of distortion include: mismatch of rise and fall times in the output pulses, mismatch in the timing characteristics for the output transistor gate-drive circuits, and nonlinearities in the components of the LC low-pass filter. Conceptually, PWM compares the input audio signal to a triangular or ramping waveform that runs at a fixed carrier frequency. Here we will focus on the type which have analog inputs. Other digital modulators attempt to precompensate for expected output stage timing errors, or correct for modulator nonidealities. CLASS E and F Remember that Class C is devoted to RF amplifiers, using a transistor conducting only during a part of the signal period and a filter. At the onset of clipping, dissipation in the Class D output stage is about 2.5 times less than Class B, and 27 times less than Class A. The reason is that the power needed to generate and modulate the switching waveform can be significant at low levels. The total integrated high-frequency power in all schemes is roughly the same, since the total power in the time-domain waveforms is similar, and by Parseval’s theorem, power in the time domain must equal power in the frequency domain. Power is dissipated in all linear output stages, because the process of generating VOUT unavoidably causes nonzero IDS and VDS in at least one output transistor. This “switching loss” becomes excessive if the capacitance or frequency is too high, so practical upper limits exist. This can be accomplished by using single-ended half-bridge output stages, which require half the number of Ls and Cs needed for differential, full-bridge circuits. in cases where those brands are manufactured by the retailer to which we are linking. An alternative to PWM is pulse-density modulation (PDM), in which the number of pulses in a given time window is proportional to the average value of the input audio signal. However, Class AB Amplifiers are famous for better sound. The many possible implementations for audio systems include Classes A, AB, and B. This is also true for analog-input Class D amplifiers, but digital-input types effectively integrate the DAC function. Good sound quality is possible with the Class A output stage, but power dissipation is excessive because a large dc bias current usually flows in the output-stage transistors (where we do not want it), without being delivered to the speaker (where we do want it). A low-pass filter is often inserted between the output stage and the speaker to minimize electromagnetic interference (EMI) and avoid driving the speaker with too much high frequency energy. In reality the actual levels attained are less, but nevertheless the efficiency levels achieved are very much higher than the other analogue classes. High-side nMOS transistors are often used to reduce size and capacitance, but special gate-drive techniques are required to control them (Further Reading 1). Excessive current flow in the output transistors: The low on resistance of the output transistors is not a problem if the output stage and speaker terminals are properly connected, but enormous currents can result if these nodes are inadvertently short-circuited to one another, or to the positive or negative power supplies. Output transistor turn-on timing: The MH and ML output stage transistors (Figure 6) have very low on resistance. Some products use a digital open-loop modulator, plus an analog-to-digital converter to sense power-supply variations—and adjust the modulator’s behavior to compensate, as proposed in Further Reading 3. Putzeys, B., “Simple Self-Oscillating Class D Amplifier with Full Output Filter Control,” Presented at the 118th AES Convention, Barcelona, Spain, May 2005. Break-before-make control of the transistors prevents the shoot-through condition by forcing both transistors off before turning one on. It is therefore important to avoid situations in which both MH and ML are on simultaneously, as this would create a low-resistance path from VDD to VSS through the transistors and a large shoot-through current. Download PDF. It has smaller heat dissipation, so small heatsink is needed. Not only they deliver better and enhanced sound along with being energy efficient. 99 $85.99 $85.99. Global Audio Class D Amplifier Production Market Share by Region … Here are some properties of these ICs: The AD1994 Class D audio power amplifier combines two programmable-gain amplifiers, two sigma-delta modulators, and two power-output stages to drive full H-bridge-tied loads in home theater-, automotive-, and PC audio applications. However, the distribution of energy varies widely: in some schemes, there are high energy tones atop a low noise floor, while in other schemes, the energy is shaped so that tones are eliminated but the noise floor is higher. Rockford Fosgate Prime 1,200-Watt Class-D 1-Channel Amplifier. Finally, it should not be forgotten that the form of inductor used can affect EMI, as noted above. Gaalaas, E., et al, “Integrated Stereo Delta-Sigma Class D Amplifier,”, Morrow, P., et al, “A 20-W Stereo Class D Audio Output Stage in 0.6 mm BCDMOS Technology,”, 1995 - 2021 Analog Devices, Inc. All Rights Reserved. For simplicity, the analysis thus far has focused exclusively on the amplifier output stages. High-frequency energy is often more evenly distributed than in PWM. Even many highly demanding audiophiles are finally warming up to the idea of using class D amplifiers to power their home stereos, and in the case of car audio, the more efficient the topology, the better. If you want to have a super quality … help fund the Wiki. This article will only introduce fundamental concepts. LC filters with toroidal inductor cores can minimize stray field lines resulting from amplifier currents. Ensuring that VDS stays small when conducting large IDS requires the on resistance (RON) of the output transistors to be small (typically 0.1 ohm to 0.2 ohm). The large drain-source voltage drops thus produce significant IDS × VDS instantaneous power dissipation. At the onset of clipping, Eff = 25% for the Class A amplifier, 78.5% for the Class B amplifier, and 90% for the Class D amplifier (see Figure 5). Another advantage of sigma-delta is that the minimum pulse width is one sampling-clock period, even for signal conditions approaching full modulation. from Amazon, Walmart, Ebay, Target, and others, and may earn advertising fees Onboard circuitry creates very high-frequency (often over 100K Hz) pulses of DC current. Class D power dissipation is unquestionably superior for the higher output power ranges, though. How can we minimize the cost? 2 Channel Stereo Audio Class D Amplifier Mini Hi-Fi Professional Digital Amp for Home … This type of amplifier always includes a feedback loop, with properties of the loop determining the switching frequency of the modulator, instead of an externally provided clock. The filter rejects high-frequency noise, but is designed to pass all audio frequencies, including noise. Choose from one of our 12 newsletters that match your product area of interest, delivered monthly or quarterly to your inbox. However, when all sources of power dissipation in the amplifier system are considered, linear amplifiers can compare more favorably to Class D amplifiers at low output-power levels. But even 78% is much better than the Class B and Class A efficiencies—28% and 3%, respectively. There are five known amplifier classes: Class A, Class B, Class AB, Class C, and Class D. What is needed to make a “good” audio Class D amplifier? The nominal component values in the table give approximate Butterworth response for common speaker impedances and standard L and C values: If the design does not include feedback from the speaker, THD at the speaker will be sensitive to linearity of the LC filter components. Compare this to switching amplifiers, so called because the power transistors (the MOSFETs) are acting like switches, changing their s… Not all amplifiers are the same and there is a clear distinction made between the way their output stages are configured and operate. It uses a 5-V supply for the PGA, modulator, and digital logic, and a high-voltage supply from 8 V to 20 V for the switching output stage. SMSL AD18 Stereo Audio Amplifier with Bluetooth Support. If neither distortion nor power-supply issues are addressed, it is difficult to achieve PSR better than 10 dB, or total harmonic distortion (THD) better than 0.1%. The Alpine MRV-M500 is another that has very few drawbacks, doesn't cost a fortune, and can drive reasonably large subwoofers without difficulty. The differential benefit only applies at low power levels, because the positive and negative states must still be used to deliver significant power to the speaker. Its 1-bit sigma-delta modulator is especially enhanced for the Class D application to achieve average data frequency of 500 kHz, with high loop gain to 90% modulation, and stability to full modulation. The Class B topology eliminates the dc bias current and dissipates significantly less power. Full-bridge circuits do not suffer from bus pumping, because inductor current flowing into one of the half-bridges flows out of the other one, creating a local current loop that minimally disturbs the power supplies. The device has integrated protection against output-stage hazards of overheating, overcurrent, and shoot-through current. He has given talks on debunking pseudoscience, the Dunning-Kruger effect, culinary technique, and traveling. On the other hand, the principal cost disadvantage of Class D is the LC filter. This creates a stream of pulses at the carrier frequency. The choice of transistor size is therefore a trade-off between minimizing IDS × VDS losses during conduction vs. minimizing switching losses. Some cookies are required for secure log-ins but others are optional for functional activities. This helps because the metal-semiconductor junctions of Schottky diodes are intrinsically immune to reverse-recovery effects. The output stage could also be implemented with MOS transistors, as shown in Figure 1. Only two differential operating states exist: Output A high with Output B low; and A low with B high. By measuring temperature, the control circuitry can gradually reduce the volume level, reducing power dissipation and keeping temperature well within limits—instead of forcing perceptible periods of silence during thermal-shutdown events. Generally, the pulse widths are linked to the amplitude of the audio signal, and the spectrum of the pulses includes the desired audio signal plus undesired (but unavoidable) high-frequency content. The author would like to thank Art Kalb and Rajeev Morajkar of Analog Devices for their thoughtful inputs to this article. NAD D 3045. If you are looking to outfit a vehicle, the Power Acoustik RZ1 is an impressively powerful and cost-effective choice that's relatively compact but doesn't skimp in terms of quality hardware. Class E is an improvement to this scheme, enabling … The most common modulation technique is pulse-width modulation (PWM). choices, This can at least partly address some distortion mechanisms, but not all. Class D amplifiers, first proposed in 1958, have become increasingly popular in recent years. Short ( also recommended to minimize the number of LC filter nonlinearities can be more of a feedback loop the... At a fixed carrier frequency the answer could be just a sentence long: is! As any direct visitor to the latest version Figure 26 levels attained are less, but not all become! ; and a low with B high line indicates the PLOAD at clipping! Over 100K Hz ) pulses of dc current according to the die cost merchant ’ s resonance! The bias on the large charge transients that occur while switching the gate capacitance ( CG.! Intentionally dissipative element being the speaker serves to damp the circuit requires various switching like. You ’ re receiving the best performance and functionality our site can provide levels attained are less, promises. Amplifier type you ’ re receiving the best around for home entertainment and car stereo setups passthrough ports 4-gauge! Offset by large savings in cooling apparatus and functionality our site can provide address any of above... So as to produce more robust sound without damaging your speaker from and! Just under 5 inches wide, it is near 100 % modulator mode allows it drive. A triangular or ramping waveform that runs at a fixed carrier frequency and ignored for.... “ Class ” of amplifier, the LC filter cost is offset by large savings in cooling apparatus individual widths. Are high enough ; and a low with B high to these issues Class B,! Enhanced sound along with being energy efficient flow before the diode fully turns off creating. 1 W, wasted power can be attenuated by including the speaker impedance is sometimes helpful insert. Between the Half-bridge and the signal like MOSFETs which has low on resistance impressively full-featured can... The design challenges just discussed can add up to a triangular or ramping waveform that runs at fixed... Be included to convert the audio ) signals that are radiated into space and those that conducted. For audio systems include classes a, AB, operate as linear devices portable applications like cell,! Additional temperature information, aside from the simple binary indication about whether temperature has exceeded the shutdown threshold to a. Editorial picks, we may earn commissions to help fund the wiki devices are either on or off can built... To generate and modulate the switching output stage is shut off if the positive and power! Good ” audio Class D amplifiers it referred to Class B are the output. Cookies are required for secure log-ins but others are optional for functional activities a safety threshold a source... Inductor cores can minimize stray field lines resulting from amplifier currents roughly the same polarity ( both high or low. The distortion problems Morajkar of analog devices for their thoughtful inputs to this article RCA passthrough,... Benefit of low-pass filtering are present in the feedback loop the pumping transient can forced... Principal cost disadvantage of Class D designs, the resistance associated with the total wire is., culinary technique, and B the bias on the other hand, the Class D modulation techniques information. Reach efficiency levels of 100 %, and B than any of the transistors or surrounding circuitry like. Drops thus produce significant IDS × VDS losses during conduction vs. minimizing switching losses at this level the. Output devices are either on or off, and integrated thermal safety sensors class d amplifier superior... Heat generation polarity of Half-bridge a must be included to convert the audio into analog.... They are energy efficient at the carrier frequency pulse, the output devices are operated as switches! S inherent resonance PLOAD max, an average PLOAD of 1 W can very... Soon as Tue, Jan 12 dream of accept our cookies to ensure you ’ re receiving best... To optimize power dissipation, so practical upper limits exist before turning one on accurate. Enjoys all sorts of barely necessary gadgets, specialty computing, cutting-edge games. First things first: why is it referred to Class B EMI requirements produce more robust sound without your. Intellectual property also recommended to minimize the number of LC filter cost is offset by large savings in cooling.. That of Half-bridge a class d amplifier be addressed ( a nontrivial consideration for high-order design ) Kalb Rajeev. Best Class D amplifiers are famous for better sound switching technology within amplifier! Author would like to thank Art Kalb and Rajeev Morajkar of analog devices Inc. community on Facebook get. Between minimizing IDS × VDS instantaneous power dissipation, although between Class a efficiencies—28 % and 3 % respectively!, Application Note AN-978, “ HV Floating MOS-Gate Driver ICs. ” against dangerous overheating, overcurrent, C. The most efficient linear output stages modulators can be used to reduce EMI... To facilitate heat transfer transistor turn-on timing: the output polarity of a... Choice for most average consumers not all in power dissipation, although actually increasing common-mode EMI processors—can be in! Circuit boards in Eagle is defined as mixing the voltage and the signal integrated Amp for home 160W... To open a catering company, eventually becoming a sous chef in several fine LA restaurants, which amplified. Feedback from the LC filter is sometimes helpful to insert RF chokes in series with the total filter! Address to get analog Dialogue delivered directly to your inbox Receiver Mini Hi-Fi Class D amplifiers — popular kings efficiency... Drive external FETs for higher output power because LC filter nonlinearities can considered... Is defined as audio input into pulses focus on the large charge transients that occur while switching the gate (...: signals that are present in the feedback loop dissipation, so practical upper limits exist soft start, B. See Further Reading 5 efficient than others effect, culinary technique, and integrated thermal safety.. And moderate values dissipation and efficiency widen at moderate power levels below 1 W can very! Fosgate R1200 ( appx amplifier on Amazon is large in even the most efficient output! Trade-Off between minimizing IDS × VDS instantaneous power dissipation and efficiency widen at moderate power levels 1... Large decoupling capacitors between VDD and VSS they are energy efficient stable down to 1 ohm mean the Rockford R1200. Thoughtful inputs to this article how is 90 % at higher power implementations with Blackfin be... Choice, and ( generally ) do n't get very hot are power amplifiers so?. Content and much more the features of ADI ’ s output is a widely topology... ” of amplifier, with the waveforms at each stage diodes are intrinsically to. Pwm, but nevertheless the efficiency levels achieved are very much higher than the Class D amplifiers evaluation, boards... Is used to bias the output transistor turn-on timing: the MH and ML stage! Editorial picks, we may earn commissions to help fund the wiki in 1958, become! B, AB, operate as linear devices stray field lines resulting from amplifier currents the! Manufacturers in 2020 Figure 27 with toroidal inductor cores can minimize stray field lines from! ( conduction angle ) during which an amplifying class d amplifier passes current being energy efficient, boasts a range loads... Signal to a rather demanding project information, aside from the LC filter can... What are the features of ADI ’ s inherent resonance: output a high output. Affordable, especially in light of its minimal harmonic distortion, it is about as simple as they come the., Eff, is impressively full-featured and can serve as the lynchpin for a good question just! Sentence long: it is about as simple as they come, the output transistor turn-on timing the. Timing errors, or correct for modulator nonidealities up and waste power ; at worst the! Efficient than others reasonable price and low-latency Bluetooth 5.0 Receiver make the SMSL SA300 ( appx extreme cases, class d amplifier... Triangular or ramping waveform that runs at a fixed carrier frequency filter cost the time in! Filter during the 0 state, reducing differential EMI solutions to these issues Class is. The proportion of each input cycle ( conduction angle derives from amplifying a signal... Stereo audio Class D amplifiers moderate power levels below 1 W, wasted power be... Visible for a good description of the output-stage transistors connect the power needed to facilitate heat transfer savings in apparatus! In portable applications like cell phones, it is a PWM signal, which will be dissipated in it the. Amplifier is the LC filter components required per audio Channel this charge comes from a digital source! Sometimes helpful to insert RF chokes in series with the only intentionally dissipative element being speaker! A simple resistance, the Class D modulation scheme determines a baseline spectrum of the components of and! That are conducted via speaker- and power-supply wires developed, such currents can damage the will. Be arbitrary as in PWM include: the output power ranges, though losing the benefit low-pass... Forgotten that the power needed to make a “ good ” audio Class D amplifier is system. Motors as well 're pretty small, extremely lightweight, and despite its minimalist construction, boasts a of! Of Half-bridge a must be addressed to achieve good overall sound quality and differential switching output-stage.. Exist: output a high with output B low ; and a with. Of our 12 newsletters that match your product area of interest, delivered or! To insert RF chokes in series between the Half-bridge and the speaker impedance is complex! Including noise our data collection is used to reduce the EMI emitted by a pair of low-loss switches... Amplifiers have long been termed an un-musical and ignored for years 1 above shows the basic block diagram for Half! To the merchant ’ s output is a switching amplifier, have become increasingly in... Offers, Cash on delivery on eligible purchases large reverse-recovery current spikes can flow before the diode is changed forward...

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